The split between the Guelfs, who were sympathetic to the papacy, and the Ghibellines , who were sympathetic to the German Holy Roman emperors, contributed to chronic strife within the cities of northern Italy in the 13th and 14th centuries. Guelf was derived from Welf, the name of the dynasty of German dukes of Bavaria who competed for the imperial throne through the 12th and early 13th centuries. It was during the reign of the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick I Barbarossa —90 that the terms Guelf and Ghibelline acquired ificance in Italy, as that emperor tried to reassert imperial authority over northern Italy by force of arms. During the struggles between the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick II reigned —50 and the popes, the Italian parties took on their characteristic names of Guelf and Ghibelline beginning in Florence and contributed to intensifying antagonisms within and among the Italian cities.
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